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引导状语从句的连词讲解

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2018-09-01

一、重点知识归纳及讲解

(一)从属连词

从属连词是引导状语从句宾语从句及其他从句的连词。

1.引导状语从句的从属连词有:

1)when, while, before, after, as soon as, until, since等,引导时间状语从句。

2)because, as, since等引导原因状语从句。

3)if, as long as等引导条件状语从句。

4)though, although引导让步状语从句。

5)so…that…, such…that…等引导结果状语从句。

6)so that引导目的状语从句。

7)as?as?;than等引导比较状语从句。

2.常用从属连词的辨析

1)when, as, while

when, as, while都表示“当…的时候”,但when引导的时间状语从句的动作和主句的动作可以是同时发生,也可以先后发生,when既可指时间点,也可指一段时间,所以既可引导一短暂动作动词,也可引导持续性动作的动词。

用as作从属连词引导时间状语时强调主句和从句的动作并行发生,不指先后,尤指短动作或事件同时发生。如:As I looked, someone came near.(正当我看的时候,有个人走上前来。)as还可说咱两种正发展或变化的情况,意为“随着”。如:As spring warms the earth, all flowers begin to bloom.(随着春回大地,百花开始绽放。)表示主从句动作同时,as意为“一边…一边…”。如:He hurried home, looking behind as he went.(他匆匆忙忙跑回家,一边走一边回头望。)

while只指一段时间,从句中的谓语动词不能用终止性动词,强调某一段时间内主从句动作同时发生,常对同类的动作进行对比。如:While we were waiting for a bus, it was raining hearily.(我们在等车时,天正下着大雨。)

2)till和until

till和until都表示“直到…为止”。主句用延续性动词,主句和从句都用肯定式:意为“直到…才”。主句用终止性动词,从句用肯定式,主句用否定式。until较till正式,until引导的时间从句可以放在句首。

例如:

She won't go away till you promise to help her.

直到你允诺要帮助她,她才走开。

Until you told me, I had heard of nothing what happened.

直到你告诉我,我才知道发生了什么事。

3)since

since引导的时间状语从句常用一般过去时,其主句一般使用现在完成时

例如:

Jim has been in the factory for two years since he left school.

从吉姆毕业起,他在这家工厂工作两年了。

(二)状语从句

修饰主句中的谓语动词,形容词副词等的从句叫状语从句。

例如:

He didn't go to school yesterday because he was ill.(修饰动词go)

昨天他没去上学,因为他病了。

We must study so well as our teacher hoped.(修饰副词well)

我们应该学得你我们老师希望的那么好。

Lucy is younger than Jim(is)。(修饰形容词younger)

露茜比吉姆年轻。

状语从句的语序应是主语+谓语+其他成分,即陈述句的语序。

状语从句的位置,可以放在主句前面或后面,但是若放在主句前面,要用逗号与主句分开;主句若是疑问句,那么时间状语从句只能放在主句的前面。

1)时间状语从句

时间状语从句由when, while, after, before, since, as soon as, till, until等连词引导。

例如:

I went to bed after the TV play was ever.

电视剧完了以后我上床睡觉。

Could you look after her while we're away?

我们不在时你能照顾她吗?

She has taught in this school since she came to this city in 1989.

自从一九八九年她来到这座城市以来一直在这所学校教书。

Wait until I come back.

请你等到我回来。

注意:

如主句是一般将来时,则表示将来的时间状语只用一般现在时

例如:

I'll write to you as soon as I get to Beijing.

我一到北京就将写信给你。

It will get warmer and warmer when spring comes.

春天来临时,天气将变得越来越暖和。

2)原因状语从句

原因状语从句由because, as, since等连词引导。

例如:

He sold the car because it was too small.

他卖掉那辆小汽车,因为它太小了。

Since you won't help me, I must do the job myself.

你既然不帮我忙,我必须自己做这项工作。

As my mother is away at this moment, I have to look after my younger sister.

由于我的妈妈现在不在,我不得不照顾我的妹妹。

注意:

a)because, as, since, for的用法辨析

because, as, since, for都是表示各种理由的连词,但because多表示所叙述的理由是本句的重点,故because所引导的从句常放在句末。

例如:

Why was he absent? Because he was badly ill.

他为什么缺度?因为他病得很重。

as, since用于表示理由是已知,而理由以外才是叙述的重点,两者皆多用于句首,但要注意since重形式,as多表示理由以外的才是重点。

例如:

As it is raining, let's stay as home.

因为下雨,我们就留在家里吧。

Since you have no license, you are not allowed to drive.

因为你没有驾驶执照,所以你不可以开车。

for不用于句首,而用于主句之后,补充说明理由;主句表推测时,用for说明原因。

例如:

I'll follow his advice, for he is a doctor.

我会听从他的劝告,因为他是医生。

b)because of也是表示原因状语,但后面只能跟短语。

例如:

I stayed at home because of the bad weather.

因为天气不好我留在家里。

3)比较状语从句

比较状语从句由than或as来引导。

例如:

I feel better now than (I was) before.

我现在觉得比以前好了。

He writes as well as you (do).

他写得和你一样好。

This problem is more difficult than that one (is).

这道题比那道题难。

4)条件状语从句

条件状语从句由if, unless(= if not)算连词引导。条件从句中的动词多用一般现在时表示将来。

例如:

I shall go if he asks me.

如果他请我,我就去。

I shan't go unless he asks me.

除非他请我,否则我是不去的。

I shall go, whether he asks me or not.

不管他请不请我,我都要去。

Come with me if you have time.

如果你有时间请跟我来。

I want to watch a basketball match if I'm well tonight.

如果今晚我好了的话,我要看一场篮球赛。

由and连接的简单句,可以用条件状语从句来改写。

例如:

Run faster and you'll catch up with him.

跑快点儿你就会赶上他。

=If you run faster, you'll catch up with him.

如果你跑得快点,你就会赶上他。

5)结果状语从句

结果状语从句由so that, so… that引导。

例如:

He has lost his bike so that he can't come to school on time.(结果状语)

他去了自行车,所以不能准时到校。

Your shirt were so dirty that you must wash it.(结果状语)

你的衬衣这么脏,你应该把它洗洗。

注意:

由so…that引导的状语从句若是表示否定意思,可以用too…to(太…而不能)来替换。

例如:

She was so angry that she could not say a word.

=She was too angry to say a word.

她气得说不出话来。

6)让步状语从句

让步状语从句一般用though(虽然)、although(虽然)、even though(即使)引导。

例如:

Though/Although he tried hard, he was not successful.

他虽然努力尝试,但没有成功。

He went on working though it was very late.

虽然很晚了,他还在继续工作。

注意:

1.汉语中的“虽然…但是…”在英语中用连词though就可以了,或单独使用but连接两个并列句也可以,但不能在一个句子中同时用这两个连词(主句前不用连词)。

例如:

“虽然我很喜欢照顾我姐姐的婴儿,但她不让我干”。这个句子我们可以用下面两种方法来表达。

Though I like looking after my sister's baby, she doesn't let me do it.

I like looking after my sister's baby, but she doesn't let me do it.

=though可以与yet连用,这里yet虽然意思与but相同,但yet不是连词,而是副词。

例如:

Though it was cold, yet he went out without a coat.

虽然很冷,但他没穿外衣就出去了。

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