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主动语态和被动语态

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2016-07-05

语态表示主语和谓语的关系。语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。如果主语是动作的执行者,或者是说动作是由主语完成的,要用主动语态,如:We speak Chinese in China.在中国我们说汉语;如果主语是动作的承受者,或者是说动作不是由主语而是由其他人完成的,则用被动语态,如:Chinese is spoken by us in China.在中国汉语被我们说。

 

一、主动语态改成被动语态方法

把主动语态改为被动语态非常简单,可以遵循以下几个步骤:

1. 将主动语态的宾语作被动语态的主语;

2. 谓语动词变为“be+及物动词的过去分词”,并通过be的变化来表达出不同的时态;

3主动语态的主语变为介词by的宾语,组成介词短语放在被动结构中的谓语动词之后。(有时by的短语可以省略);

例:1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week.

 

二、被动语态的用法:

1. 一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are + 及物动词的过去分词

Our classroom is cleaned everyday.

2. 一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词

A new shop was built last year.

3. 现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been + 及物动词的过去分词

This book has been translated into many languages.

4. 一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

Many more trees will be planted next year.

5. 含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

Young trees must be watered often.

6. 现在进行时的被动语态构成:am / is / are + being + 及物动词的过去分词

Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→ My bike is being repaired by Tom now.

7. 不定式的被动语态:to + be + 及物动词的过去分词

There are two books to be read. → There are twenty more trees to be planted.

 

三、使用被动语态应注意的几个问题:

1. 不及物动词无被动语态。What will happen in 100 years.  The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.

2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。This pen writes well. This new book sells well.

3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带to,但变为被动语态时,须加上to. 例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something

see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something

The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。

He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.

He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.

5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词

We can't laugh at him. →He can't be laughed at by us.

 

常见考法

对于语态考查,多以单选、词语运用的形式考查学生在具体语境中灵活运用被动语态的能力。一般情况下,会综合考查时态和语态,这时,要根据语境和动作发生的时间来确定时态,然后再确定语态。

典型例题:-Could you tell me whom the radio__________by? -Sorry. I have no idea.

A invents B invented C is invented D was invented

解析:题干的意思是“你能告诉我收音机是谁发明的吗?”,发明收音机是过去的事,所以用过去时,排除 A和C;而radio和invent 构成被动关系,应用被动语态,排除B

答案:D

误区提醒

有些动词后跟不带to的不定式作宾语补足语,但改为被动结构后要加上“to”,这一点我们必须注意。

典型例题:The young man was often seen _____ by the lake.

A to draw B to drawing C draw D drew

解析:这是2007年济南的中考题。“看到某人做某事”为see sb.do sth.。句中动词原形是省略to的不定式,在被动语态中要还原to.

答案:A

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