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英语中常见被动语态的结构

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2021-08-15

1、SVO句型的被动结构

SVO句型中的谓语为单宾及物动词,其被动结构是:S + V(被动式) (+ by短语)。例如:

He wrote the book two years ago. → The book was written by him two years ago. 这本书是他在两年前写的。

They are cleaning the house. → The house is being cleaned (by them). 房子正在被(他们)打扫。

You're wanted on the phone. 有你的电话。

2、SVoO句型的被动结构

SVoO句型中的谓语动词为双宾及物动词,其被动结构是:S + V(被动式) + O/o(保留宾语) (+ by短语)。

需要说明的是,一般把间接宾语(表示人)作为被动句的主语,而把直接宾语(表示物)作为保留宾语。如果把直接宾语作为被动句的主语,则间接宾语作为保留宾语,它的前面通常要用介词to或for(视动词而定)。例如:

My aunt gave me an apple. → *I was given an apple. / An apple was given to me. *有人给了我一只苹果。[被动句中省略了by my aunt。]

His mother bought him a new coat. → *He was bought a new coat. / A new coat was bought for him. *有人给他买了一件新大衣。[被动句中省略了by his mother。]

3、SVOC句型的被动结构

SVOC句型中的谓语动词为复宾及物动词,其被动结构是:S + V(被动式) + C(主语补足语) (+ by短语)[1]。例如:

People usually call me Jim for short. → I am usually called Jim for short. 我常常被人直呼吉姆。

They asked Mike to write soon. → Mike was asked to write soon. 迈克被要求尽快写信。

He made the baby laugh. → The baby was made to laugh (by him). 那个婴儿被(他)逗笑了。[请比较前后两句中的划线单词,被动句中需要加上to。]

在被动句中作主语补足语的不定式一律要带to,不论其作宾语补足语时是否带to(请见以上各例句)。

4、短语动词的被动结构

短语动词的被动结构是:S + V(被动式) + 介词/副词 (+ by短语)。例如:

We have sent for a doctor. → A doctor has been sent for. 已经派人去请医生了。

I turned off the radio just now. → The radio was turned off just now. 收音机刚才(被)关掉了。

They are taking good care of the children. → The children are being taken good care of. 孩子们正在受到良好的照顾。

在将含有短语动词的主动句转换成被动句时,原短语动词中的介词或副词(如以上句中的for, off, of)不能遗漏。

5、带情态动词的被动结构

带情态动词的被动结构是:S + V(情态动词+主要动词的被动式) (+ by短语)。例如:

You must do it at once. → It must be done at once. 这件事必须立即做。

We can see the park from the window. → The park can be seen from the window. 公园可以从窗户那里看到。

英语的谓语动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。前者表示句子的主语为动作的发出者,后者表示句子的主语为动作的承受者。请比较:

Tom broke the window. (主动语态)

① ② ③

The window was broken by Tom. (被动语态)

③     ②    ①

从以上对比可以看出,主动句中的主语Tom在被动句中变成了短语by Tom,主动句中的宾语the window变成了被动句中的主语。由于被动句中的主语即主动句中的宾语,因此,只有及物动词才有被动语态。

被动语态的构成

被动语态的基本构成是:be + 过去分词。与主动语态一样,被动语态也有各种时态形式,列表如下(以动词ask为例):

时间 一 般 进 行 完 成

现在 am/is/are asked

被问 am/is/are being asked

正在被问 have/has been asked

已经被问过

过去 was/were asked

(过去)被问 was/were being asked

(过去)正被问 had been asked

(过去)已被问过

将来 shall/will be asked

将要被问 1.被动语态的各种时态均由助动词be的变化构成。

2.被动语态的否定式和疑问式均由助动词或第一个助动词构成。

过去将来 should/would be asked

(过去)将要被问

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