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高中英语语法主谓一致讲解及练习题

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2021-08-22

本文主要讲解主谓一致,并列结构作主语时谓语用复数 主谓一致中的靠近原则 谓语动词与前面的主语一致

等常见考点。

主谓一致是指:

1) 语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。

2) 意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。

3) 就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,

一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。例如:

There is much water in the thermos.

但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.

15.1 并列结构作主语时谓语用复数,例如:

Reading and writing are very important. 读写很重要。

注意:当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。例如:

The iron and steel industry is very important to our life. 钢铁工业对我们的生活有重要意义。

典型例题

The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting.

A. is  B. was  C. are  D. were

答案B. 注: 先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A.,C。本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别,monitor 前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and 相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。

15.2 主谓一致中的靠近原则

1)当there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。例如:

There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk. 桌上有一支笔、一把小刀和几本书。

There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.班上有二十个男孩,二十三个女孩。

2)当either… or… 与neither… nor,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。例如:

Either you or she is to go. 不是你去,就是她去。

Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you. 给你笔、信封和纸。

15.3 谓语动词与前面的主语一致

当主语有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词组成的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语部分一致。例如:

The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. 教师和一些学生在参观工厂。

He as well as I wants to go boating.他和我想去划船。

15.4 谓语需用单数

1)代词each以及由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语时,或主语中含有each, every时, 谓语需用单数。例如:

Each of us has a tape-recorder. 我们每人都有录音机。

There is something wrong with my watch. 我的表坏了。

2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。例如:

The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. 《天方夜谭》是英语爱好者熟悉的一本书。

3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。例如:

Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. 用三个星期来做准备。

Ten yuan is enough. 十元够了。

15.5 指代意义决定谓语的单复数

1)代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。例如:

All is right. 一切顺利。

All are present. 人都到齐了。

2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后,谓语动词用复数形式时强调这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时强调该集体的整体。例如:

His family isn\'t very large. 他家成员不多。

His family are music lovers. 他家个个都是音乐爱好者。

但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。例如:

Are there any police around? 附近有警察吗?

3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。例如:

A number of +名词复数+复数动词。

The number of +名词复数+单数动词。

A number of books have lent out.

The majority of the students like English.

15.6 与后接名词或代词保持一致

1)用half of, most of, none of, heaps of, lots of, plenty of 等引起主语时,谓语动词通常与of后面的名词/代词保持一致。例如:

Most of his money is spent on books. 他大部分的钱化在书上了。

Most of the students are taking an active part in sports. 大部分学生积极参与体育运动。

2)用a portion of, a series of, a pile of, a panel of 等引起主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。例如:

A series of accidents has been reported. 媒体报道了一连串的事故。

A pile of lots was set beside the hearth. 炉边有一堆木柴。

3)如 many a 或 more than one 所修饰的短语作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式。但由more than… of 作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。例如:

Many a person has read the novel. 许多人读过这本书。

More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生来自这个城市。

15.7 主谓一致练习

1.Each of you ______ responsible for the accident.

a. am b. be c. is d. are

2.Each man and woman ______ the same rights.

a. has b. have c. had d. is having

3.Every means ______ tried but without much result.

a. has been b. have been c. are d. is

4.There ______ in this room.

a. are too much furniture b. is too many furnitures

c. are too much furnitures d. is too much furniture

5.The manager or his assistant ______ planning to go.

a. were b. are c. was d. be

6.Not only I but also David and Iris ______ fond of playing basketball.

a. am b. is c. are d. was

7.Neither Tom nor his parents ______ at home.

a. is b. are c. has d. was

8.Either the dean or the principal ______ the meeting.

a. attends b. attend c. are attending d. have attended

9.______ was wrong.

a. Not the teacher but the students b. Both the students and the teacher

c. Neither the teacher not the students d. Not the students but the teacher

10.“______ twenty dollars a big sum to her?”

“I suppose so.”

a. Will be b. Is c. Are d. Were

11.Three hours ______ enough for us to finish the task.

a. are b. has c. is d. were

12.Most of his savings ______ in the Xin Hua Bank.

a. has been kept b. is being kept c. have kept d. have been kept

13.All that can be done ______.

a. has done b. has been done c. have done d. have been done

14.One or perhaps more pages _______.

a. is missing b. has been missed c. are missing d. was missing

15.More than one worker ______ dismissed.

a. have been b. are c. has been d. has

16.Many a student ______ the importance of learning a foreign language.

a. have realized b. has realize c. have been realized d. has been realized

17.The gas works ______ near the city.

a. is b. are c. were d. be

18.The surroundings of his house ______ clean now.

a. is b. are c. was d. were

19.The committee ______ over the problem among themselves for two hours.

a. has argued b. has been arguing c. have argued d. have been arguing

20.The public ______ generous in their contributions to the earthquake victims.

a. is b. was c. are d. has been

21.Cattle ______ on the hillside.

a. grazes b. is grazing c. was grazing d. were grazing

22.Her politics ______ neither conservative nor liberal.

a. is b. are c. was d. has been

23.Measles ______ a kind of infectious illness.

a. is b. are c. were d. have been

24.The Philippines ______ to the south-east of China.

a. lies b. lie c. lay d. lays

25.Mary is one of the girls who ______ always on time.

a. is b. am c. are d. was

26.Tom is the only one of the stall members who ______ to be promoted.

a. is going b. are going c. has been going d. have been going

27.What caused the accident ______ on the road.

a. were stone b. were stones c. was stone d. was stones

28.Wisky and soda ______ his favorite drink.

a. is b. are c. were d. have been

29.______ is to attend our evening.

a. both the singer and the dancer b. Either the singer or dancers

c. The singer or dancers d. The singer and dancer

30.The Smiths ______ their breakfast when the morning post came.

a. had b. has been having c. are having d. were having

31.No one except two students ______ the meeting.

a. has been late for b. have been late for c. was late for d. were later for

32.All but him and me ______ to the exhibition.

a. am going b. is going c. are going d. was going

33.Interest, as well as prospects, ______ important when one looks for a job.

a. are b. were c. is d. was

34.The president, accompanied by his assistants, ______.

a. have arrived b. are arriving c. had arrived d. has arrived

35.A number of cars ______ in front of the park

a. is parked b. was parked c. are parked d. has parked

36.the number of articles published on smoking ______ amazing.

a. is b. are c. were d. have been

37.The majority of doctors ______ smoking is harmful to health.

a. are believed b. had believed c. has believed d. believe

38.The majority of the damage ______ easy to repair.

a. is b. are c. were d. be

39.Four-fifths of the crop ______.

a. are ruined b. was ruined c. were ruined d. have been ruined

40.Three-fourths of the buildings ______.

a. was destroyed b. is destroyed c. were destroyed d. has been destroyed

41.Early to bed and early to rise ______ a man healthy, happy and wise.

a. making b. to make c. make d. makes

42.Mathematics ______ the language of science.

a. is b. has been c. are d. have been

43.The young ______ the vital forces in our society.

a. is b. has been c. are d. have been

44.Every man, woman and child ______ some history, enough at least, to survive in the world.

a. knows b. know c. is known d. are known

45.None of them ______ my friends.

a. is b. are c. was d. has been

46.Not only the whole nation, but the whole Europe , indeed the whole human society ______ to alter its attitude to racial problems.

a. need b. needs c. has a need d. have a need

47.Getting to other planets or to the moon _____ many problems.

a. involve b. involves c. involving d. to involve

48.In that country, the rich ______ richer, the poor, poorer.

a. become b. has become c. becomes d. is becoming

49.The project requires more labor than ______ because it is extremely difficult.

a. has been put in b. have been put in c. being put in d. to be put in

50.Not one in one hundred children exposed to the disease ______ likely to develop it.

a. should be b. must be c. is d. are

13主谓一致练习答案

1 C 19 D 37 D

2 A 20 C 38 A

3 A 21 D 39 B

4 D 22 B 40 C

5 C 23 A 41 D

6 C 24 A 42 D

7 B 25 C 43 C

8 A 26 A 44 A

9 D 27 D 45 B

10 B 28 A 46 B

11 C 29 D 47 B

12 D 30 D 48 A

13 B 31 C 49 A

14 C 32 C 50 C

15 C 33 C 51

16 B 34 D 52

17 A 35 C 53

18 B 36 A 54

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