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虚拟语气的使用场合与表达形式

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2018-09-21

虚拟语气用在would rather,would(just)as soon,would sooner,would prefer(希望)等后接的宾语从句中。意指某人宁愿让另一个人做某事,其后的宾语从句的谓语动词需用虚拟语气。若表示现在或将来要做某事,从句谓语动词需用一般过去时,表示过去已经做的事,从句谓语动词用过去完成时

(1)The manager would rather his daughter did not work in the same office.经理宁愿她女儿不与他在同一间办公室工作。

(2)To be frank,I'd rather you were not involved in the case.坦率地说,我希望你不要卷入这件事。

(3)You don't have to be in such a hurry.I would rather you went on business first.你没有必要这么着急,我宁愿你先去上班。

(4)I'd rather you didn't make any comment on the issue for the time being.我倒希望你暂时先不要就此事发表意见。

(5)Frankly speaking ,I'd rather you didn't do anything about it for the time being.坦白地说,我宁愿你现在对此事什么也不要做。

(6)Wouldn't you rather your child went to bed early?为什么你不愿让你的孩子早点上床呢?

注:①若某人愿自己做某事, would rather后用动词原形

I would rather stay at home today.

② would rather...than...中用动词原形

I would rather stay at home than go out today.

(7)I would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday.我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。

9.虚拟语气用在It is +形容词+that的主语从句中。

在某些表示愿望、建议、请求、命令等形容词后的主语从句中,需用虚拟语气。其表达形式为should +动词原形或省略should直接用动词原形。这类形容词有 advisable(合理的),appropriate(适当的),compulsory(必须的),crucial(紧急的),desirable(理想的),essential(必要的),imperative(迫切的),important(重要的),incredible(惊人的),natural(自然的),necessary(必要的),possible(可能的),preferable(更好的), probable(可能的),strange(奇怪的),urgent(紧迫的), vital(极为重要的)。

(1)It is essential that these application forms be sent back as early as possible.这些申请表应尽早地寄回,这是很重要的。

(2)It is vital that enough money be collected to fund the project.重要的是募集足够的钱,为这个项目提供资金。

注:在上述所列形容词后面用that引出的宾语从句中,谓语动词也要用虚拟语气。

(3)I don't think it advisable that Tom be assigned to the job since he has no experience.汤姆缺乏经验,指派他做这项工作我认为是不恰当的。

10.虚拟语气用在It is +过去分词+that的主语从句中

在It is +过去分词+that的主语从句中,常用虚拟语气,表示愿望、建议、请求等主观意向,谓语用 should +动词原形或省略should只用动词原形。这类过去分词有:decided,demanded,desired,insisted,ordered,proposed,suggested,recommended,requested, required等。

It is desired that we(should)get everything ready this evening.希望我们今晚一切都准备就绪。

11.虚拟语气用在It is +名词+that的主语从句中

在It is +名词+that的主语从句中,常用虚拟语气,表示建议、命令、请求、道歉、怀疑、惊奇等。这类名词

有:advice ,decision ,desire ,demand ,idea,motion ,

order,pity ,preference ,proposal,recommendation ,

requirement,resolution,shame,suggestion,surprise, wish,wonder等。

It is my proposal that he be sent to study further abroad.我建议派他去国外进一步学习。

12.虚拟语气用在表语从句或同位语从句中。

当某些表示建议、请求、命令等主观意向的名词作主语时,其后的表语从句或同位语从句需用虚拟语气,其表达形式为should +动词原形或直接用动词原形。这类名词常见的有:advice,suggestion,proposal,order, demand,desire,request,requirement,recommendation以及plan,idea,resolution等。

We are all for your proposal that the discussion be put off.我们都赞成你提出的将讨论延期的建议。

The suggestion that the mayor present the prizes was accepted by everyone.由市长颁发奖金的建议被每个人接受。

13.虚拟语气用在It is(about /high)time +that定语从句

在It is(about/high)time +that定语从句中需用虚拟语气,表示“该做……的时候了”,其动词形式用一般过去时或should +动词原形。

It's already 5 o'clock now.Don't you think it's about time we went home?现在已经5点钟了,你不认为我们应该回家了吗?

注:①在this is the first time /second time that...句型中,从句中谓语动词用陈述语气完成时态。例如:

Is this the first time that you have visited Hongkong?这是你第一次参观香港吗?

②It's time to do something有别于It's timethat...

14.虚拟语气用在as if(as though)引导的方式状语从句中。

在as if(as though)引导的方式状语从句中,常用虚拟语气,其动词形式与wish后接宾语从句中的形式相同。

Alan talked about Rome as if he were a Roman.艾伦谈起罗马来好像他是个罗马人一样。

15.虚拟语气用在lest,for fear that及in case引导的目的状语从句中。

在由lest等引导的目的状语从句中需用虚拟语气,表示“以防,以免”等意思,其谓语动词多由should +动词原形构成,should也可省略。

He was punished lest he should make the same mistake again.他被处以惩罚以免他再犯。

16.虚拟语气的其他用法

在表示客气、遗憾以及祝愿等场合中,使用虚拟语气。

You shouldn't have been following him so closely; you should have kept your distance.你不应该一直这样紧紧地跟着他,而该和他保持一定的距离。

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