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英语中的十六种时态

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2018-08-28

(1)一般现在时

基本形式(以do为例): 第三人称单数:does(主语为非第三人称单数);

肯定句:主语+动词原形+其他;

He works for us.

否定句:主语+don't/doesn't+动词原形+其他;

He doesn't work for us.

一般疑问句:Do/Does+主语+动词原形+其他。

肯定回答:Yes,(+ 主语+do/does).

否定回答:No,(+主语+don't/doesn't.)

特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句语

Does he work for us?

Yes, he does.

No, he doesn't

What does he do for us?

He works for us.

(2)一般过去时

be动词+行为动词的过去式

否定句式:在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词,或was/were+not;

was或were放于句首;用助动词do的过去式did提问,同时还原行为动词

例如: Did he work for us?

He didn't work for us.

He worked for us.

(3)一般将来时

am/are/is+going to+do 或

will/shall+do

am/is/are/about to + do

am/is/are to + do;

一般将来时的表达方法

be going to +动词原形

be +不定式,be to+动词原形,be about to +动词原形

be able to +不定式

be about to+动词原形

will + 动词原形;

例如:He is going to work for us.

He will work for us;

He is coming.这是特殊的用一般现在时 表达 将来时态 的例子!!

(4)过去将来时

be(was,were)going to+动词原形

be(was,were)about to+动词原形

be(was,were)to+动词原形

肯定句:主语+be(was,were)going to+动词原形~.

否定句:主语+be(was,were)not going to+动词原形~.

疑问句:Be(Was,Were)+主语+going to+动词原形~?

肯定句:主语+would(should)+动词原形~.

否定句:主语+would(should)not+动词原形~.

疑问句:Would(Should)+主语+动词原形~?

He would work for us.

(5)现在进行时

主语+be+v.ing〔现在分词〕形式(其中v表示动词)

表示现在正在进行的动作或最近在做的事。

例如:I am buying a book.

第一人称+am+doing+sth

第二人称+are+doing +sth (doing是泛指所有的v-ing形式)

第三人称+is+doing+sth

例:He is working.

(6)过去进行时

肯定句:主语+was/were+doing+其它

否定句:主语+was/were+not+doing+其它

一般疑问句及答语:Was/Were+主语+doing+其它 ;答语:Yes,I主语+was/were./No,I主语

+wasn't/weren't.

特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+was/were+主语+doing+其它

He was working when he was alive.

(7)将来进行时

主语+will + be +现在分词

He will be working for us.=He will work for us.

(8)过去将来进行时

should(would)+be+现在分词

He said that he would be working for us.=He said that he would work for us.

(9)现在完成时

基本结构:主语+have/has+过去分词(done)

①肯定句:主语+have/has+过去分词+其他

②否定句:主语+have/has+not+过去分词+其他

③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他

④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词+其他\

He has worked for us for ten years.

Has he worked for us for ten years.

(10)过去完成时

基本结构:主语+had+过去分词(done)

①肯定句:主语+had+过去分词+其他

②否定句:主语+had+not+过去分词+其他

③一般疑问句:Had+主语+过去分词+其他

肯定回答:Yes,主语+had

否定回答:No,主语+hadn't

④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句(had+主语+过去分词+其他)

语法判定:

( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。如:

I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.

( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。如:

We had learnt over two thousand English words by the end of last term.

( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。如:

They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.

(11)将来完成时

(shall)will+have+动词过去分词

before+将来时间或by+将来时间

before或by the time引导的现在时的从句

He will have worked for us.=He will work for us.

(12)过去将来完成时

should / would have done sth.

He said that he would have worked for us.=He said that he would work for us.

(13)现在完成进行时

基本与现在完成时相同,但是现在完成进行时只能表示仍然持续的概念

have/has been +-ing 分词

He has been working for us for ten years.=He has worked for us for ten years.

(14)过去完成进行时

had been +-ing 分词

He said that he had been working for us for ten years.=He said that he had worked for us for ten years.

(15)将来完成进行时

主语+ shall/will have been doing

He will have been working for us.=He will work for us.

翻译为:他最近一直在为我们工作(过去在工作,现在在工作,将来还会工作)

(16)过去将来完成进行时

should+have been+现在分词用于第一人称

would have been+现在分词用于其他人称

He said that he would have been working for us.=He said that he would work for us.

举例:

英语中有12个主要时态,都来自于三时(过去、现在、将来)

现在以I listen为例,举例英语中有12个主要时态如下所示:

一般现在时:I listen

现在进行时:I am listening

过去进行时:I was listening

现在完成时:I have listened

现在完成进行时:I have been listening

一般将来时:I shall listen”或“I will listen.”

将来进行时:I shall be listening

一般过去时:I listened

过去完成时:I had listened

过去完成进行时:I had been listening

将来完成时: I shall have listened

将来完成进行时: I shall have been listening

英语中不存在属格

一个普遍的误解是在英语中只存在一个以“'s”结尾表示所属的属格。然而,语言学家已经表明英语的所有格完全不是一个格,而是一个独立的词并且在书写和发音上都不是前一个词的一部分,这可以有下面这个句子表明:The King of Sparta's wife was called Helen.(斯巴达国王的妻子叫做海伦。)如果“'s”是属格,那么“妻子”(wife)就属于“斯巴达”(Sparta),但是“'s”并不是只表示“斯巴达”(Sparta),而是表示“斯巴达国王”(King of Sparta)。

上面这个例子并不表明英语没有自己的属格;但是它现在已经发展成为另一个形式。在古英语中,ban的属格形式是banes。后来在现代英语中,这个发展成为了使用“'s”表示的“bone's”。在18世纪,人们对此的解释是省略号代替了一个属格代词,就像“the King's horse”是“the King, his horse”的缩写。但是这个解释是不正确的。人们更相信是省略号代替了古英语中的“e”。

英语和“与格”

在现代英语中,与格不再是英语语法的一部分,它只出现在一些表达用语中。一个很好的例子是单词methinks(据我看来)。它来源于古英语的与格形式变化:me(与格的人称代词)+thinks(to seem,与动词词组to think很接近的一个词组)。 与格在英语中可以不要前置词,例如在“He built me a snowman.”中一样。在这个例子中,“me”是与格。

英语中不可把被动语态作为一种时态

在部分英语教材中,由于编者自身对被动语态的理解或其他原因,错误的将被动语态当成一种时态,但其实,被动语态是一种语态,不可能当作时态。在英国,这是一个常识。因此,在英国,如果有人犯了这种错误,简直是贻笑大方。

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