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延续性与非延续性动词在现在完成时态中的使用

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2016-07-23

(1)有一些动词是瞬间动词,也叫非延续性动词,这些动词一发生就结束了,常见的有:come, go, arrive, reach, leave, begin, start, buy, join, die, borrow, get up, become, open, stop等。这些动词虽然可以用于现在完成时(说明某个动作的结果还存在),但由于它们不能延续,因此不能跟表示一段的时间状语连用。(也即现在完成时的第二个基本用法中不能使用非延续性动词)。

e.g. Jim has come back. (正) 吉姆已经回来了。

Jim has come back for a month. (误) come back的动作不能延续一个月,因此错误。

 

(2)瞬间动词不可以用于有段时间的现在完成时态中,因此,若要解决这一问题,就应把它改为相应的延续性动词或短语,主要有以下几种:

①用相应的延续性动词

如: buy → have borrow → keep come/go/become → be put on → wear catch a cold → have a cold ②转换成be+名词

如: join → be a member of go to school → be a student ③转换成be+形容词副词

如: die → be dead leave → be away begin → be on finish → be over fall asleep — be asleep open → be open get up → be up close → closed ④转换成be+介词短语

如: come to/go to/arrive in (at)/get to/reach …→ be in/at… join the army → be in the army(军队)

e.g. I have borrowed the book. 我已经借了那本书。

I have kept the book for two days. 我已经借那本书两天了。

Jim has joined the band. 吉姆已经加入那乐队了。

Jim has been a member of the band for a month. 吉姆已经加入那个乐队一个月了。

His grandfather has died. 他祖父已经死了。

His grandfather has been dead for 2 years. 他祖父已经死了两年了。

My father has arrived in China. 我父亲已经到达中国了。

My father has been in China for a week. 我父亲已经在中国一个星期了。

 

(3)在否定句中,非延续性动词也可以与时间段连用。

e.g. I haven’t borrowed books from the library since last year. 自去年以来我就没有在图书馆借过书。

Jim hasn’t come back for a year. 吉姆已有一年没回来了。

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