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现在完成时用法讲义

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2019-12-22

现在完成时是初中的重要时态,今天我们一起来学习下,内容很详细,各位老师可以直接使用,也可以根据先后内容做成PPT课件。

现在完成时的构成

现在完成时由“have(has)+过去分词”构成。has 用于主语是第三人称单数时。(过去分词的构成P122—123中“动词的基本形式”)

①I have just finished my homework. 我刚做完功课

②I have lived in Guangzhou for more than three years. 我已经在广州住了三年多了。

③My sister has seen the movie many times. 那部电影我姐姐看过好多次了。

现在完成时的否定句疑问句的构成。

否定句:主语+have /has +not+过去分词+其他.

说明:have和has常与not 缩写成haven't 和hasn't .

①I haven't seen much of him recently 最近我没怎么见到他。

②He hasn't been to Japan.他没有去过日本。

一般疑问句: Have /Has +主语+过去分词+其它?

肯定回答: Yes.主语+have /has.

否定回答: No,主语+have /has not。

③—Have you finished your homework ? 你已经做完家庭作业了吗?

–Yes, I have (No, I haven't ) 是的 。(不,还没有)

④–-Has he passed the test yet ? 他考试及格了吗

—-Yes, he has . (No , he hasn't ) 是的。(不,没及格)

巩固练习:

The bus hasn't arrived yet. (改成肯定句)The bus ________ _______ __________.

I have watched the interesting film recently. (改成一般疑问句)

______ you ________ the interesting films recently?

I have already had my breakfast. (改为否定句)I ________ had my breakfast ______.

I have already finished doing my homework. (改为一般疑问句)

_____ ________ finished doing your homework ________?

She has already worked out that difficult math problem. (改为否定句)

She _________ worked out that difficult problem __________.

现在完成时的基本用法

现在完成时有两个主要用法,“已完成”用法和“未完成”用法。

现在完成时的“已完成”用法

“已完成”用法指动作或过程发生在说话之前某个不明确的时间,现在已经完成,但后果或影响至今仍然存在。其重点就是着眼于现在,强调过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响和后果。

现在完成时常与表示不确定的时间状语连用,如:yet, just, before , recently ,once ,lately 等,也同表示频率副词连用,如:often ,once ,ever ,never等。www.yingyuyufa.com

① I've forgotten his telephone number.我忘记他的电话号码。(表示现在没法跟他联系)

② He has already given up smoking .他已经戒烟了。(表示现在已经不抽烟了)

③ How many times have you been to Beijing ?他去过北京几次? (与表示频率的状语连用)

现在完成时的“未完成”用法。

“未完成”用法是指它可以表示开始于过去持续到现在(也许还会继续进行下去)的动作或状态。这一用法与“已完成”的用法主要区别在于它通常都要与表示一段时间的状语连用。常用的表示时间的状语有:for…..,since…(自从…),so far (到目前为止)等。如:①We have received no news from her for 2years .两年了,我们没有她的一点消息。

②She has taught us since I came to this school.从我来学校开始她就一直教我们。

使用现在完成时应注意的情况

瞬间动词(也叫点动词,非延续性动词或终止性动词)表示的动作有一个终点,到了终点就不能再延续,因此不能与表示一段时间的时间状语(如for短语,since短语等)连用,但是可以与表示非持续的时间状语连用。如:

His father has died for three years . ( )

【die(死)为瞬间动词,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用

①他父亲去世已经三年了。 His father died three years ago . ( )

【可以与表示非持续性的时间状语连用

I have bought the book for a week . ( )

【buy(买)为瞬间动词,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用

②这本书我买了一个星期了。 I bought the book a week ago . ( )

【可以与表示非延续性的时间状语连用

表示时间段的时间状语时,可以将瞬间动词变为同义的延续性或表状态的动词(短语)。所以,上面两例还可以分别表示为:

③His father has been dead for three years . {be dead (死的)表状态}

④I have had the book for a week . {have(拥有)表延续性动作}

常见的瞬间动词可以转换成表延续状态的词有如下一些:

die —–be dead leave / go—–be away (from) come /go back—-be back

buy—–have borrow——-keep make friends—be friends

open—-be open fall asleep—be asleep marry—–be married

begin /start —be on finish——-be over get ready —-be ready

arrive/ get to /reach /come—–be in / be at /stay

join (the Party)—–be a (Party) member / be in (the Party )

如果出现一段时间时,同时又要保留非延续性动词,则可以用“It is +时间+since+一般过去的句子“句型改写。如上面的句①和句②可以分别表示为:

① It is three years since his father died. ②It is a week since I bought the book

For+一段时间 ,since+过去的时间

巩固练习:用for, since, ago填空。

Sally has been away from London ________ last Saturday.

Our school has changed a lot ________ the new building was built.

Tommy has had this motorcycle ________ three years.

I have been in Nanjing ________ eight years.

My parents has been married since twenty years ________.

My cousin joined the army three months ________.

同义句转换

1) They borrowed it last week. They ____ ______it since ______ _______.

I bought a pen two hours ago. I ______ ______a pen for ______ _______.

He has gone to Beijing. He _____ ______ ______ Beijing for two days.

4)He joined the league in 2002.

He _____ ______ a _________ ______ the ________ for two years.

My grandpa died in 2002. My grandpa _______ _____ ______for _______ ________.

6)The shop closed two hours ago.

The shop _______ ________ ______ for ________ _________.

7)The door opened at six in the morning.

The door ________ ________ ________ for six hours.

如现在完成时的谓语动词是瞬间动词的否定式,则一般可以和表示一段时间的for短语连用。因为瞬间动词的否定式构成一种状态,而状态是可以持续的。

① We haven't met him for a long time .我已经好久没遇到他了。{表示“没见到”这一状态}

② The old man hasn't left home for a month .那位老人已经有一个月未出门了。(表示“足不出户”

have (has )been to 与have (has) gone to have (has)been in

have (has) been to 表示“去过某地”,指曾经有过或没有过的一种经历。说话时已从该地回来或已从该地去了其他地方。可以同once,often,never,ever, many times 等连用。

have(has )gone to 表示“去某地了”,指说话时某人已不在此地。在去某地的途中或已在某地。所以一般来说此结构只用于主语是第三人称时。

试比较:

She has gone to Shanghai . 她去北京了(表示她人此刻不在这,在北京的途中或已在北京)

She went to Shanghai a year ago 她去过北京。(表示她到过北京这一经历)

have (has) been in 表示“已在某地(待了多久)若该地为小地方,则in需要用at代替,当后面跟副词时只用have been,其后不可以用任何介词

① The Greens have been in China for two years .

② LiLei's aunt has been at this school for two years.

③The Greens are in China now. They have been here for a half a year.

巩固练习 :用have(has) been 或have(has) gone 填空。

A: Where ____________ Li Fei ___________?B: He ____________ to Hainan Island.

A: How long _______ he __________ there? B: He _____________ there for three days.

A: When will he come back, do you know? B: I'm afraid he won't come back recently.

A: Could you tell me the way to Hainan Island?

B: Sorry, I _________ never ___________ there.

A: How many times ___________ Li Fei __________ to that place?

B: He _____________ there only once.

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