您现在的位置:主页 > 句法 > 句子成分 > 文章内容

主语补足语与其他成分的区别

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2018-07-29

1、表语(特殊的主补)

⑴句子成分:主系表结构,特殊主谓结构,系动词和表语构成复合谓语

⑵条件:①be动词;②半系动词,注意判断半系动词和实义动词)

⑶ 组成成分:名词代词数词形容词副词介词短语,不定式,动名词,现在分词,过去分词,从句

⑷ 例子:

①数词:It is tree。

②名词:He is a boy。

③代词:It is her who loves you。

④形容词:She is beautiful 。

⑤ 副词(疑问副词、地点副词、时间副词、与介词同形的副词、带有动态性质的副词、其他副词)

How is your rmother?你母亲好吗?(疑问副词how,when,where,why作表语)

He isn’t here.他不在那里.(地点副词here.there.far.abroad,apart,out.ete作表语)

The meeting will be tomorrow.会议将于明天举行(时间副词today,tomorrow.ago.since.soon,ete作表语)

Is XiaoWuin in?小吴在家吗?(与介词同形的副词about,above.in,by.etr作表语)

I'll be back in a minute. 我一会儿就回来(带有动态性质性质的副词back(回来),home(回家).away(离开)等作表语)

Is that so? 是那样吗?(其他副词作表语)

⑥介词短语

I am at home.(at home 是介词短语作表语)

⑦不定式(①将来的具体动作;②主语表语对称表条件结果;③主语为特定词duty等)

My plan is to do it right now。(to do it 是不定式作表语,①表将来的具体动作。②如果主语是不定式(表示条件),表语也是不定式(表示结果)。 例如:To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。③如果主语是im,duty,hope,idea,happiness,job,plan,problem,purpose,thing,wish等为中心的名词,或以what引导的名词性从句,不定式作表语是对主语起补充说明作用。 例如:His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future.)

⑧动名词(①抽象的一般性行为;②名词性质,可与主语对调位置,意思正确)

My job is teaching. 我的工作是教书。(teaching是动名词作表语,①表示抽象的一般性的行为②动名词是名词性质 ,可与主语互换位置,意思不变且正确)

⑨现在分词(①形容词性质,与主语对调位置,意思错误;②主谓关系)

My job is interesting. 我的工作很有趣。(interesting是现在分词作表语,①现在分词是形容词性质,有的已转化为形容词,表示主语的性质和特征,不可与主语互换,否则意思错误;②现在分词与所修饰的词是主谓关系,主动发出动作)

⑩过去分词(形容词性质,与主语对调位置,意思错误;动宾关系)

My heart is broken 。(broken是过去分词作表语,①过去分词是形容词性质,有的已转化为形容词,表示主语的性质和特征,不可与主语互换,否则意思错误;②过去分词与所修饰的词是动宾关系,被动承受动作)

11从句

My wish is what you want。

2、普通主补

⑴句子成分:(被动语态下的)主谓宾结构,主谓宾主补结构,谓语是及物动词

⑵条件:①及物动词;②被动语态;③主语与该部分主谓关系或主系关系)

⑶例子:

①数词: It can‘t be made two。

②代词:I can't be made you。

③名词:He is found a good person。

④形容词:He was found happy。

⑤副词:The book was found here。(地点副词)

⑥介词短语:The book was found on the desk。

⑦不定式:The book is believed to be uninteresting.

⑧动名词:This is called turning things upside down. 这叫做把事物颠倒了。(turning…说明This是什么,是主语补语)(动名词作主补时,就像名词作宾补那样,用来表示主语“是什么”。))

⑨现在分词:He was found singing。(感官动词和使役动词接现在分词作主补)

10过去分词:My heart is found broken。

3、定语():

⑴(特殊主谓)主系表中的定语:

She is the right person to teach him。(the right person 是表语,是特殊的主补;to teach him 是后置定语,修饰名词性表语 person;the是定冠词,和person构成表语;right是定语修饰person或者与the 、person一起构成表语?)

People wishing to visit that place will be here tomorrow。 (be是系动词;here是表语;will be here 助动词系表构成复合谓语;wishing to visit that place 是定语;tomorrow是状语)

⑵(普通)主谓中的定语:People wishing to visit that place will come here tomorrow.(come是实义动词,是不及物动词‘will come 构成复合谓语;wishing to visit that place 是定语;here是地点副词作状语;tomorrow是时间副词作时间状语)

⑶主谓宾中的定语:People wishing to visit that place will drink the wine tomorrow.(wishing to visit that place 是定语;drink是实义动词,是及物动词;will drink构成复合谓语;the wine 是名词宾语;tomorrow是时间副词作时间状语)

4状语

⑴(特殊主谓)主系表中的状语:

He is here,tired。(is是系动词;here是地点副词作表语;is here 构成复合谓语;tired是伴随状语)

⑵(其他)主谓中的状语:

He came back,tired.(came意为来,此处是实义动词,是不及物动词,单独作谓语;back,tired都是状语,伴随状语)

He died old.(die是死亡,是不及物动词,作谓语;old是状语)

She married young.(marry是结婚,是不及物动词,作谓语;young是状语)

Jack walked out of jail a free man。(walked out of jail 两种理解,此处取①:walk是不及物动词;out of jail是介词短语作状语;a free man是状语)

⑶主谓宾中的状语:

Happy and excited,he visit her house。(vist是谓语;her house 是宾语;Happy and excited是状语)

The book was found on the desk in the afternoon 。(in the afternoon是时间状语;on the desk 是主语补足语)

The classroom is cleaned by the students。(by the students 是方式状语)

Jack walked out of jail a free man。(walked out of jail 两种理解,此处取②:walk out of 是及物动词;jail是名词作宾语;a free man是状语)

相关推荐

定语:用来修饰名词的句子成分 状语:修饰形容词,动词,副词等的句子成分 表语:表述主语的身份,状态,特征等。例:she is beautiful. 句子中beautiful就是表语 宾补:就是宾语补足语,就是补...[阅读全文]

句子由主语和谓语两大部分组成。主语结构比较单一,谓语结构则不然,不同类别的谓语动词导致不同的谓语结构,从而形成了不同的句型(Sentence Pattern)。换句话说,不同的句型是由不同类别的谓语...[阅读全文]