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英语句子成分-宾语讲解 什么是宾语?

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2016-06-15

句子中,表示谓语动词动作对象的成分叫宾语,宾语是动作的承受着。英语中,及物动词(或相当于及物动词的短语动词)、介词后须带宾语,少数形容词后也可以带宾语。可以担任宾语的有:名词代词数词、动词不定式(短语)、动名词、名词化的形容词以及从句(宾语从句)等。

(1)、名词

I am reading a book. 名词作动词read的宾语。)

I'm going to Beijing with my father. (名词作介词with的宾语。)

We couldn't finish the work without his help. (同上)

In the past, many parents couldn't afford education for their children.

(2)、代词

Yesterday, Tom' mother looked after him at home.(代词宾格him作短语动词look after的宾语。)

Please look it up in the dictionary. (代词宾格it 作短语动词look up的宾语)

I have something to tell you.(不定代词短语作动词have的宾语)

What would you like? (疑问代词作动词like的宾语。)

Yesterday my father bought me a new bike. (分别作动词bought的间接宾语和直接宾语)

We got lost and couldn't find each other. (反身代词)

(3)、数词

Give me three, please! (数词作直接宾语。)

(4)、动词不定式(短语)

Ilike to play basketball. (作动词的宾语。)

Glad to meet you. (作形容词的宾语。)

Nice to see you again!(同上)

I'm sorry to trouble you. (同上)

I think it impossible to climb the mountain. (it作形式宾语,动词不定式短语作真正宾语。)

I don't want to there again.

I really like/hate to go shopping.

(5)、动名词(短语)

I enjoy listening to music very much. (作动词的宾语)

Nice meeting you here today! (作形容词nice的宾语)

(6)、形容词

We must help the poor. (作动词的宾语)

The new always takes place of the old. (作介词of的宾语)

(7)、宾语从句

He knows who is right. (作动词的宾语)

I want to know what color is her favorite. (作动词不定式to know 宾语)

I'm sure that she'll come soon.(作形容词sure的宾语)

I'm thinking of where I should go during the vacation. (作介词of的宾语)

△几个常见加the后可以名词化的形容词是:poor, rich, young, old,happy, blind, beautiful等。

△宾语从句应特别注意的三要素是:时态、语序、连接词。

△少数能跟宾语的形容词有:happy, glad, nice, sure, certain, surprised, pleased, aware, afraid, proud, sorry, worried, ashamed等。

△直接宾语和间接宾语:

英语中,一些及物动词如:give, pass, show, send, bring, tell, teach, buy, lend等,可以带两个宾语。一个指人,叫间接宾语;一个指物,叫直接宾语。间接宾语一般放在直接宾语的前面。如果放在其后,则间接宾语前一般加介词to,以表示动作对准谁;或加介词for,以表示动作为谁做。例如:

He gave me an interesting book.=He give an interesting book to me.

Please bring me some snacks.=Please bring some snacks to me.

Mother told me a story last night.=Mother told a story to me last night.

My uncle often teaches me English songs.

=My uncle often teaches English songs to me.

Jim bought me a beautiful present.

=Jim bought a beautiful present for me.

如果直接宾语是代词,则必须放在间接宾语之前,并且在二者之间加上介词to或for。例如:

Give it to me, Lily. 不能说 Give me it, Lily.

There two pencils on the desk, pass them to me. 不能说 … pass me them.

△复合宾语

英语中,一些及物动词的宾语须在其后加上一个补足语,对其进一步作补充说明,意思才够完整和明确,该补足语即叫宾语补足语。宾语和其补足语一起构成复合宾语,二者之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。能担任宾语补足语的有:名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式和分词(现在分词、过去分词)。例如:

We must keep our classroom clean. (形容词,Classroom和clean之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系,即:Our classroom is clean.)

We call the bird “Polly”.(名词)

(the bird和Polly之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系,即:The bird is Polly.)

Our teacher told us to do Exercise One. (动词不定式短语)

(us 的主格we 和to do Exercise One之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系,即:We should do Exercise One.)

She always thinks others above herself. (介词短语)

(Others is always above herself.)

I brought my dog here. (副词,My dog was here.)

I saw Jack playing under a tree. (现在分词短语,Jack was playing under a tree.)

In one place I saw children working for a cruel boss.

常见的可带复合宾语的动词有:call, find, believe, think, see, feel, make, keep, hear, name, tell, ask, want, invite, let, make, have等。因此我们常用到以下短语:ask( tell / want / invite … ) sb. to do sth.

let ( make / have / get … ) sb. do sth.

see ( hear / watch / feel … ) sb. do sth.

see ( hear / watch / feel … ) sb. doing sth.

其中,感官动词(see, hear … )和使役动词 ( let, make, have … )后,如果是动词不定式短语作宾语补足语,则习惯上去掉不定式符号 to ;但是,当把这类句子转换成被动语态时,又须将去掉的 to 加上。试比较:

My father made me stay at home last night.

→ I was made to stay at home last night by my father.

Tom saw me come back today.

→ I was seen to come back today by Tom.

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