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五个基本句型

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2020-07-19

1简单句、并列句、复合句

根据语法形式,即句子的结构,英语的句子可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。

1简单句

句型:主语+谓语

只包含一个主谓结构,而句子的各个结构都只由单词或短语表示。简单句有五种基本句型,详见第十七章。

They are playing baseball in the garden.

他们正在公园里打棒球。

Her brother and sister both are teachers.

她的哥哥和姐姐都是老师。

2并列句

句型:简单句+并列连词+简单句

(常见的并列连词有and,but,or)

并列句是由两个或两个以上的简单句连接而成。并列句中的各简单句意义同等重要,相互之间没有从属关系,是平行并列的关系。它们之间用连词连结。

My friend was at home, and we talked for along time.

我的朋友在家,我们谈了好长时间。

Her father is a doctor and her mother is a teacher.

她父亲是个医生,她母亲是个老师。

I liked the story very much but Li Ming wasn't interested in it.

我非常喜欢这个故事,可是李明却对它不感兴趣。

Hurry up,or you'll be late.

快点,否则你就会迟到的。

3 复合句

句型:主句+连词+从句;或连词+从句+主句(包含一个主句、一个或一个以上的从句,或只包含一个从句,但有两个或两个以上的主句的句子叫复合句。)

句子的成分

组成句子的各个部分叫做句子的成分。句子成分包括:主语、谓语、表语、宾语(直接宾语、间接宾语)、宾语补足语、定语和状语。主语和谓语是句子主体部分(在英文中一般的句子必须有主语和谓语)。表语、宾语和宾语补足语是谓语里的组成部分。其他成分如定语和状语是句子的次要部分。下面我们分别讲述一下句子的各个成分:

1 主语

主语是谓语讲述的对象,表示所说的“是什么”或“是谁”。一般由名词代词、不定式或相当于名词的词或短语来充当。它在句首。

We study in No.1 Middle School.(讲述“谁”~)

我们在一中学习。

The classroom is very clean.

(讲述“什么”很干净)

这间教室很干净。

Three were absent.(数词作主语)

三个人缺席。

To teach them English is my job.

(不定式作主语)

教他们英语是我的工作。

注意

不定式作主语时,常用形式主语it句型,因此左例可变为It is my job to teach them English.

(真正的主语是to teach them English.)

2 谓语

说明主语“做什么”,“是什么”或“怎么样”。

谓语(谓语部分里主要的词)必须用动词。谓语和主语在人称和数两方面必须一致。它在主语后面。

His Parents are doctors.

(系动词和表语一起作谓语)

他的父母亲是医生。

She looks well.(系动词和表语一起作谓语)

她看起来气色(面色)很好。

We study hard.(实义动词作谓语)

我们努力学习。

We have finished reading the book.

(助动词和实义动词一起作谓语)

我们已经看完了这本书。

He can speak English.

(情态动词和实义动词作谓语)

他会说英语。

3 表语

表语说明主语“是什么”或者“怎么样”,由名词、形容词副词介词、不定式及相当于名词或形容词的词或短语来担任。它的位置在系动词后面。

You look younger than before.(形容词作表语)

你看起来比以前年轻。

I am a teacher.(名词作表语)

我是个老师。

Everybody is here.(副词作表语)

所有的人都出席了。

They are at home now.(介词短语作表语)

他们现在在家。

My job is to teach them English.(不定式作表语)

我的工作是教他们英语。

4 宾语

宾语是动作、行为的对象,由名词、代词、不定式或相当于名词的词、短语来担任,它和及物动词一起说明主语做什么,在谓语之后。(直接宾语、间接宾语详见后面五种基本句型)。

She is playing the piano now.(名词作宾语)

她正在弹钢琴。

He often helps me.(代词作宾语)

他常常帮助我。

He likes to sleep in the open air.(不定式作宾语)

他喜欢在露天睡觉。

We enjoy living in China.(动名词作宾语)

我们高兴住在中国。

5状语

状语用来修饰动词、形容词或副词。一般表示行为发生的时间、地点、目的、方式、程度等意义,一般由副词、介词短语、不定式或相当于副词的词或短语来表示。状语一般放在句末,但有的可以放在句首、句中。(详见副词)

He did it carefully.(副词作状语)

他仔细、认真地做这项工作。

Without his help,we couldn't work it out.

(介词短语作状语)

如果没有他的帮助,我们不可能解决这个问题。

(In order) to catch up with my classmates, I must study hard.(不定式作目的状语)

为了赶上我的同学,我必须努力学习。

6 定语

定语是用来修饰名词或代词的。形容词、代词、数词、名词、介词短语、不定式或相当于形容词的词或短语等都可以担任定语。因为它是修饰名词或代词的,而名词和代词又可以作主语,还可以作表语和宾语,所以定语的位置很灵活,凡是有名词、代词的地方都可以有定语。

The black bike is mine . (形容词作定语)

I have something to do . (不定式作定语)

英语五个基本句式

从英语的句子结构上说,除了修饰名词的定语和修饰动词的状语外,在千变万化的句子中可归纳为五个基本句式,一般地说,某些

动词用在某一句式中,下面笔者把这些句型和常用的动词进行归类,供你参考。

1.S(主) + Vi(不及物动词)(谓)

Time flies.

1) S + V + adverbial(状语)

Birds sing beautifully.

2) S + Vi+ prep Phrase(介词短语)

He went on holiday.

3) S + Vi+ Infinitive (不定式)

We stopped to have a rest.

4) S + Vi+ Participle (分词)

I'll go swimming.

2. S (主)+ Vt (及物动词)(谓)+ O(宾)

We like English.

1) S + VT + N/Pron

I like music.

I like her.

2) S + VT + infinitive(不定式)

I want to help him.

常用于这句型的动词有:attempt, dare, decide, desire, expect, hope, intend, learn, need, offer, pretend, promise,

propose, purpose, refuse, want, wish等。

3) S + VT + Wh-Word + Infinitive

I don't know what to do.

常用于这句型的动词有:ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, find out, forget, guess, inquire, know, learn,

observe, remember, see, settle, tell, think, understand, wonder等。

4) S + VT + Gerund

I enjoy living here.

常用于这句型的动词有:admit, advise, avoid, consider, defend, enjoy, excuse, finish, forbid, mind, miss,

practise, risk, suggest, give up, can't help等。

5) S + VT + That-clause

I don't think (that) he is right.

常用于这句型的动词有:Admit, believe, command, confess, declare, demand, deny, doubt, expect, explain, feel(觉得)

, hear(听说), hope, imagine, intend, know, mean, mind(当心), notice, propose, request, report, say, see

(看出),show, suggest, suppose, think, understand, wish, wonder(觉得奇怪)。

3. S (主)+ V(谓)(lv)( 系动词)+ P(表)

We are Chinese.

除了be 系动词外,还有一些动词也可以用作系动词,1)表感官的动词,feel, smell, taste, sound, look, appear, seem 等。

2) 表转变变化的动词,become, get, grow, turn, go,等。 3)表延续的动词 remain, keep, seem, hold, stay, rest等。

4)表瞬时的动词 come, fall, set, cut, occur等 5)其他动词 eat, lie, prove, ring, run, shine, sit, stand, continue,

hang等。

1) S + Lv + N/Pron(名词/代词)

He is a boy.

This is mine.

2) S + Lv + Adj(形容词)

She is beautiful.

3) S + Lv + Adv (副词)

Class is over.

4) S + Lv + Prep Phrase

He is in good health.

5) S + Lv + Participle(分词)

He is excited.

The film is interesting.

4. S (主)+ VT (谓)+ In O(间接 宾) + D O(直接 宾)

I give you help.

1) S + VT + N/Pron + N

I sent him a book.

I bought May a book.

2) S + VT + N/Pron + To/for-phrase

He sent a book to me.

He bought a coat for me.

间接宾语前需要加to 的常用动词有:allow, bring, deny, do(带来), give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe,

pass, pay, permit, promise, read, refuse, render, restore, sell, send, show, teach, tell wish, write等。

间接宾语前需要加for 的常用动词有:bring, buy, cash, choose, fetch, get, leave, make, order, paint, play(演奏),

save, sing, spare等。

5. S (主)+ VT(谓)+ O(宾) + O C(宾补)

I make you clear.

1) S + VT + N/Pron + N

We named our baby Tom.

常用于这句型的动词有:appoint, call, choose, elect, entitle, find, make, name, nominate(命名)。

2) S + VT + N/Pron + Adj

He painted the wall white.

常用于这句型的动词有:beat, boil, cut, drive, find, get, hold, keep, leave, like, make, paint, see, set, turn,

want, wash, wipe, wish等。

3) S + VT + N/Pron + Prep Phrase

She always keeps everything in good order.

4) S + VT + N/Pron + Infinitive

I wish you to stay.

I made him work

常用于这句型的动词有:a)不定式带to的词:advice, allow, ask, beg, cause, choose, command, decide, encourage,

expect, force, get, hate, invite, know, leave, like, love, order, permit, persuade, prefer, remain, request,

teach, tell, want, warn, wish等。b)不定式不带to的词:feel, have, hear, know, let, listen to, look at, make,

notice, see, watch等。

5) S + VT + N/Pron + Participle (分词)

I heard my name called.

I feel something moving.

常用于这句型的动词有:catch, feel, find, get, have, hear, imagine, keep, leave, listen to, look at, notice,

observe, perceive, see, set, smell, start, watch等。

6) S + VT + N/Pron + Wh-word + Infinitive

He show me how to do it.

常用于这句型的动词有:advise, ask, inform, show, teach, tell等。

7) S + VT + N/Pron + That-clause

He told me that the film was great.

常用于这句型的动词有:assure, inform, promise, remind, teach, tell, warm等。

S + VT + N/Pron + Wh-Clause

He asked me what he should do.

常用于这句型的动词有:Advise, ask, inform, show, teach, tell.

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