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宾语从句讲解

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2016-07-03

1.语序

无论主句是陈述句还是疑问句宾语从句都必须使用陈述语序,即“主句+连词+宾语从句(主语+谓语+……)”句式。根据连接词在从句中所担任的不同成分,可分为以下四种:

1)连接词+谓语。连接词在从句中作主语。常见的连接词有: who,what,which等。如:

Could you tell me who knows the answer,please?你能告诉我谁知道答案吗?

The small children don't know what is in their stockings.这些小孩子不知道袜子里有什么东西?

2)连接词+名词+谓语。连接词在从句中作主语的定语。常见的连接词有:whose,what,which,how many,how much等。如:

He asked whose handwriting was the best in our class.他问我们班上谁的书法最好。

The teacher asked us how many people there were in the room.老师问我们房间里有多少人。

3)连接词+主语+谓语。连接词在从句中作宾语、状语或表语。常见的连接词有:who(m),what,which,how many,how much, when,why,how,where,if /whether(在句中不充当任何成分)等。如:

He hasn't decided if he'll go on a trip to Wuxi.他还没决定是否去无锡旅行。

Could you tell me what I should do with the money ?你能告诉我我如何处理这笔钱吗?

4)连接词+名词+主语+谓语。连接词在从句中作宾语或表语的定语。常见的连接词有:what,which,how many,how much,how等。如:

Do you know which class he is in ?你知道他在哪个班吗?

She asked me if I knew whose pen it was.她问我是否知道这是谁的钢笔。

2.连接词

1)当由陈述句充当宾语从句时,用that引导,that无词义,在口语或非正式文体中常省略。如:

He said that he could finish his work before supper.他说他会在晚饭前完成工作。

2)当由一般疑问句充当宾语从句时,用if或whether引导,意为“是否”。如:

I don't know if /whether he still lives here after so many years.我不知道这么多年后他是否还住在这儿。

但在下列情况下只能用whether:

①在具有选择意义,又有or或or not时,尤其是直接与or not连用时,往往用whether(if…or not也可以使用)。如:

Let me know whether /if he will come or not.(=Let me know whether or not he will come)让我知道他是否能来。

I don't know whether /if he does any washing or not.(=I don't know whether or not he does any washing.)我不知道他洗不洗衣服。

I wonder whether we stay or whether wego.我不知道我们是去还是留。

②在介词之后用whether。如:

I'm interested in whether he likes English.我关心的是他是否喜欢英语。

We're thinking about whether we can finish the work on time.我们正在考虑是否能按时完成这项工作。

I worry about whether I hurt her feelings.我担心是否伤了她的感情。

③在不定式前用whether。如:

He hasn't decided whether to visit the old man.他尚未决定是否拜访那位老人。

I don't know whether to go.我不知去否。

He hasn't decided whether to go by bus or by train.他还未决定是乘公共汽车去还是坐火车去。

④whether置于句首时,不能换用if。如:

Whether this is true or not,I can't say.这是否真的我说不上来。

⑤引导主语从句和表语从句时宜用whether。如:

Whether she will come or not is still a question.她是否能来还是个问题。

The question is whether we can catch the bus.问题是我们能否赶上公共汽车。

⑥若用if会引起歧义时,则用whether。如:

Please let me know if you like the book.可理解为:

a.Please let me know whether you like the book.请告诉我你是否喜欢这本书。

b.If you like the book,please let me know.你如果喜欢这本书,请告诉我。

3)如果宾语从句原来是特殊疑问句,只需用原来的特殊疑问词引导。如:

Could you tell me why you were late for the meeting this morning?你能告诉我今天早上你为什么开会迟到吗?

3.时态

含宾语从句的复合句,主、从句谓语动词的时态呼应应包括以下三点内容:

1)如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时,从句的谓语动词可根据需要,选用相应的任何时态。如:

I don't know when he will come back.我不知道他将何时回来。

He tells me that his sister came back yesterday.他告诉我他姐姐昨天回来了。

2)如果主句的谓语动词是过去时,宾语从句的谓语动词只可根据需要,选用过去时态即一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时或过去完成时的某一种形式。如:

①The children didn't know who he was.孩子们不知道他是谁。

②He asked his father how it happened.他问他父亲这件事是如何发生的。

3)如果宾语从句所表示的是客观事实、普遍真理、自然现象或习惯性动作等,不管主句用什么时态,从句时态都用一般现在时。如:

The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.老师说地球绕着太阳转。

4.注意:

if和when既可以引导宾语从句,也可以引导状语从句,应注意它们在两种从句中的意思和用法的不同。if和when引导宾语从句时,分别意为“是否”和“何时”,其时态应和主句时态相呼应;它们引导状语从句时,意思分别为“如果,假如”和“当……时候”,当主句时态是一般将来时时,其时态用一般现在时。它们常常放在含有状语从句和宾语从句的题干中进行综合考查。如:

—Do you know when he will come back tomorrow ?你知道他明天什么时候回来吗?

—Sorry,I don't know.When he comes back,I'll tell you.对不起,不知道。当他回来了,我将告诉你。

—I don't know if he will come.我不知道他是否会来。

—He will come if it doesn't rain.如果不下雨,他会来的。

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