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定语从句考点复习攻略

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2018-08-28

定语从句就是在考句子成分,而关系代词与关系副词的区分就是为了划定句子成分。这也就是为什么要熟背出所有的关系代词和关系副词的道理。关系代词对人有who,whom,对物有which,都可以的是that,说谁的是whose,还有一个特殊的as.关系副词只有三个,时间地点和原因,when,where和why.

正由于关系代词和关系副词在句子中所做成分截然不容,其中关系代词作的是主语,宾语(表语也算,和宾语位置相同),还有whose作的是定语,而关系副词永远做的是状语。所以大多数情况下(whose表示物主一会儿另说)当横线后定语从句不缺少主语或者宾语的情况下,就必然不会填关系代词中的任何一个,这会儿往往就已经筛掉了2个选项了。剩下三个关系副词具体是谁,就看先行词就行了。

到这里,还要多说一点,关系副词是可以由“介词+which”替换的,比如in the morning的定语从句改写就既可以改写为when也可以改写为in which,但是关系副词why的替换是固定的,由于先行词基本就是reason,所以why只能替换为for which。

下边来说一下特殊情况,只能用that的几种情况,挨个背一下吧。不定代词,all,only,very,序数词,最高级,又有人又有物。

然后是as这个特殊的词,引导非限制性定语从句的时候,as可以放在句首,而which不可以。之后就是such as 和such that的问题了。such as本身当“比如”讲,但是such 和as之间也是可以放词的,就成了such A as B,这时意思就成了“像B这样的A”,就成了定语了,也就是as是关系代词了,这代表什么信息呢?很重要,由于关系代词as是必须要在定语从句中作主语或宾语的,因此as后边引导的句子必然缺少这两个成分的其中一个,才能填as.说这么多是为什么呢?因为such有两个词组,分别是such … as… 和such… that…,考试最常考的也是它们俩。区别很简单,such that表示“如此以至于”,引导的是结果状语从句,而such… as… 引导的是定语从句。

下边我用一个实际的句子来诠释。

He is such a good boy ______ everybody likes.

He is such a good boy ______ everybody likes him.

两个句子唯一的区别就在于第2句多了个him,因此第2句主谓宾全齐了,不需要再填关系代词了,所以就只能用that引导,表示结果状语从句。而第1句恰好相反,缺少了宾语,必须用as来作宾语。这个问题到此说清。

接下来说whose作定语的问题,表示所属关系不见得是人的,“物的”也是可以的,比如房子的窗户在定语从句中有三个说法,the house whose window = the window of which = of which the window.这个就叫做所属关系,因此所属关系除了whose以外就有两个,对人是of whom,对物是of which。到这儿,就又出现了另一个常见考点,就是of which/whom 和of them的区别是什么呢?也很简单,of which/whom是定语从句,也就是不能单独成句的句子,而of them是可以单独成句的句子,不是定语从句,举例如下:He had many friends, many of whom are foreigners. 是定语从句。He had many friends, and many of them are foreigners. 就是并列句了,由and引导的句子叫并列句。

最后是关系代词的省略问题,关系代词作宾语或表语是可以省略的,作主语是不能省略的,因为主语后直接是动词,省略的话就出现先行词直接接从句动词的语法错误。举例:Is there anything that you want to say? 中的that就可以省略。而He is the headmaster of this school who also teaches Chemistry. 中的who就当然不能省略。

好了,说了这么多,基本上把定语从句的脉络理清,接下来用几个常见考题来巩固一下。

(2011全国卷I) 31. The prize will go to the writer ________ story shows the most imagination.

A. that B. whichC. whose D. what

解析:【C】whose作定语,表示“谁的”.

(2011全国卷II)7. Ted came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a T-shirt, ____ is a stupid thing to do in such weather.

A. this B. that C. what D. which

解析:【D】非限制性定语从句,先行词为前边整句话,后边直接接的是动词is,所以用which作主语。

(2011北京卷)26. Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was to the others, _________, of course, make all the others upset.

A. whoB. whichC. whatD. that

解析:【B】同上一题。

(2011上海卷) 39. You'll find taxis waiting at the bus station ____ you can hire to reach your host family.

A. whichB. whereC. whenD. as

解析:【A】hire是“雇佣”的意思,这里就是租车了,所以You can hire 是主语谓语,to reach your host family 是目的状语,这个句子缺少宾语,即租的“车”,所以缺宾语用代词,which.

(2011山东卷)32.The old town has narrow streets and small houses _____are built close to each other.

A. they B. where C. what D. that

解析:【D】横线后直接接动词are,要用关系代词作主语,只有that了。

(2011江西卷)34. She showed the visitors around the museum, the construction _____had taken more than three years.

A. for whichB. with whichC. of whichD. to which

解析:【C】这就是所属关系,the construction of the museum = whose construction = of which the construction

(2011江苏卷)24. Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, _______ the audience can buy ice-cream.

A. when B. where C. that D. which

解析:【A】 the audience 为主语,can buy为谓语,ice-cream为宾语,所以从句完整,不能用关系代词。所以要用关系副词,先行词是interval,表示“间隔”,是时间,所以用when.

(2011湖南卷)25.Julie was good at German, French and Russian, all of _________ she spoke fluently.

A. who B. whom C. which D. that

解析:【C】同样是所属关系,对物所属,所以用of which.

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