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With的基本用法与独立主格

作者: admin来源: 网络文章 时间: 2021-03-19

with结构是许多英语复合结构中最常用的一种。学好它对学好复合宾语结构、不定式复合结构、动名词复合结构和独立主格结构均能起很重要的作用。

一、 with结构的构成

它是由介词with或without+复合结构构成,复合结构作介词with或without的复合宾语,复合宾语中第一部分宾语由名词或代词充当,第二部分补足语由形容词副词、介词短语、动词不定式或分词充当,分词可以是现在分词,也可以是过去分词。With结构构成方式如下:

1. with或without-名词/代词+形容词;

2. with或without-名词/代词+副词;

3. with或without-名词/代词+介词短语;

4. with或without-名词/代词 +动词不定式;

5. with或without-名词/代词 +分词。

下面分别举例:

1、She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.(with+名词+形容词,作伴随状语)

2、With the meal over, we all went home.(with+名词+副词,作时间状语)

3、The master was walking up and down with the ruler under his arm。(with+名词+介词短语,作伴随状语。)

4、He could not finish it without me to help him.(without+代词 +不定式,作条件状语)

5、She fell asleep with the light on.(with+名词+现在分词,作伴随状语)

二、with结构的用法

with是介词,其意义颇多,一时难掌握。为帮助大家理清头绪,以教材中的句子为例,进行分类,并配以简单的解释。在句子中with结构多数充当状语,表示行为方式,伴随情况、时间、原因或条件(详见上述例句)。

1. 带着,牵着…… (表动作特征)。如:

Run with the kite like this.

2. 附加、附带着……(表事物特征)。如:

A glass of apple juice, two glasses of coke, two hamburgers with potato chips, rice and fish.

3. 和…… (某人)一起。

a. 跟某人一起(居住、吃、喝、玩、交谈……) 。如:

Now I am in China with my parents.

Sometimes we go out to eat with our friends.

He / She's talking with a friend.

b. 跟go, come 连用,有 "加入"到某方的意思。如:

Do you want to come with me?

4. 和play一起构成短语动词play

with 意为"玩耍……,玩弄……" 如:

Two boys are playing with their yo-yos.

5. 与help 一起构成 help...with...句式,意为"帮助 (某人) 做 (某事)"。如:

On Monday and Wednesday, he helps his friends with their English.

6. 表示面部神情,有“含着……,带着……” 如:

"I'm late for school," said Sun Yang, with tears in his eyes.

7. 表示 "用……" 如:

You play it with your feet.

What do the farmers do with your machines?

8. 表示 "对……, 关于……"。如:

What's wrong with it?

There's something wrong with my computer.

三、with结构的特点

1. with结构由介词with或without+复合结构构成。复合结构中第一部分与第二部分语法上是宾语和宾语补足语关系,而在逻辑上,却具有主谓关系,也就是说,可以用第一部分作主语,第二部分作谓语,构成一个句子。例如:

With him taken care of,we felt quite relieved.(欣慰)→(He was taken good care of.)

She fell asleep with the light burning. →(The light was burning.)

With her hair gone, there could be no use for them. →(Her hair was gone.)

2. 在with结构中,第一部分为人称代词时,则该用宾格代词。例如:

He could not finish it without me to help him.

四、几点重要的考点说明:

1. with结构在句子中的位置:with 结构在句中作状语,表示时间、条件、原因时一般放在句子前面,并用逗号与句子分开;表示方式和伴随状况时一般放在句子后面,不用逗号分开。若with结构作定语,则放在所修饰的名词之后,一般不用逗号隔开。

2. with结构作状语时,不定式、现在分词、和过去分词的区别:在with结构中,不定式、现在分词作宾补,表示主动,但是不定式表示将要发生的动作,而现在分词表示正在发生或发生了的动作;过去分词表示被动或完成。

例如:

With the boy leading the way,we found he house easily.(小男孩已领过路)

With the boy to lead the way,we will find the house easily tomorrow.(小男孩明天将领路)

He lay on the bed with the bedroom door shut.(寝室被关着)

3. with结构与独立主格结构的关系

with结构属于独立主格结构,但在结构上,with结构由介词with或without引导,名词前有冠词、形容词、所有格代词或其它词类所修饰,结构较松散;而独立主格结构没有with或without引导,结构严密,名词前一般不用修饰语。在句法功能上,with结构可以作定语,独立主格结构则不能;独立主格结构通常在句中作状语,但也可以作主语,而with结构则不能。

独立主格在口语中不常用,往往由一个从句代替,而with结构较口语化,较常用。例如:

There were rows of white houses with trees in front of them.("with+复合宾语"结构,在句中作定语)

A strong man working a whole day could not jump this high.(名词+现在分词构成的独立主格结构,作主语)

The boy said, turning to the man, his eyes opened wide and his hand raised.(独立主格结构,表示伴随状况或行为方式,作状语)

Then last night,I followed him here,and climbed in,sword in hand.(名词+介词短语构成的独立主格结构,作状语,表示伴随情况)

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